Shafquat Towheed is Senior Lecturer in English in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences,The Open University. He directs the UK Reading Experience Database, 1450-1945, and the History of Books and Reading (HOBAR) Research Collaboration. He is the UK Principal Investigator for the Joint Programming Initiative for Cultural Heritage funded consortium, ‘Reading Europe Advanced Data Investigation Tool’ (READ-IT, 2018-2021) which uses digital tools to investigate the cultural heritage of reading in Europe. He is the author, editor or co-editor of nine books and has researched and written extensively on the history of reading practices. With Professor Jonathan Rose, he is co-editor of Palgrave Macmillan’s ‘New Directions in Book History’ series.